Espanya flag Espanya: Visió econòmica i política

El marc polític d'Espanya

Political outline

Current political leaders
King: Felipe VI (since 19 June 2014), hereditary
President of the Government and Prime Minister: Pedro Sanchez (since June 2018), Spanish Labour Socialist Party
Next election dates
Senate: November 2023
Congress of Deputies: November 2023
Current Political Context

The minority government led by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party secretary Pedro Sanchez with the support of Unidas Podemos managed to secure the passage of the 2022 budget legislation in November 2021. Over the year, the political climate has been tense due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and to the results of the regional elections in Catalonia, which saw pro-independence parties gaining a majority of the votes for the first time in an election, increasing their parliamentary majority, showing how the unresolved Catalan autonomy remains a pivotal issue. In a bid to start a productive dialogue, the Spanish government decided to formally pardon nine Catalan separatists who were convicted over the failed independence bid in 2017.

Main political parties
In the autonomous regions, several parties form coalition governments to garner more power. The December 2015 elections put an end to the two-party system. The main parties in the last elections held in November 2019 were:

- Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE): centre-left, a democratic socialist party and the second oldest party
- People’s Party (PP): centre-right, sometimes referred to as the 'popular party'
- Vox: right-wing, Spanish Nationalist party
- Podemos ('We can' in Spanish): left-wing anti-austerity, born in 2014 and gaining traction
- Ciudadanos (Citizens' party - C’s): centrist to centre-right, liberalism.

Other significant political forces include:

- Republican Left of Catalonia- Catalonia Yes (ERC-Catsi): centre-left, catalan independentism
- Basque Country Unite (EHB): left-wing, Basque independentism
- Canarian Coalition (CC-PNC): centre- to centre-right, Canarian nationalism.

Executive Power
The King is the Head of the State and the commander-in-chief of the army; his role is mostly ceremonial. Following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the majority of the coalition is appointed Prime Minister by the Sovereign then elected by the parliament for a 4-year tenure. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. He is also called the President of the Government. He holds executive power which includes the execution of the law and the management of the routine affairs of the country. The Council of Ministers is appointed by the king on the recommendation of the Prime minister. There is also a Council of State which enjoys the role of the supreme consulting body of the government, but its recommendations are not binding.

The President of each Autonomous Community is from the majority party of the majority coalition winning elections of the Parliaments of the Regions which take place every 4 years. The President forms a government whose «ministers» are appointed under the title «consejeros» and seconded by a cabinet and director generals, etc. who are in charge of each Department heading the sectors for which the Autonomous Community has jurisdiction in substitution of the Spanish State (single administration).

Legislative Power
The legislative power is bicameral. The Parliament, called Cortes Generales, is made up of:
- The Senate which has 265 seats. Its role is that of representing the territories (Autonomous Communities and Departments). 208 senators are elected by proportional representation for 4 years. 57 senators are elected by parliaments of the 17 autonomous communities.
- Congress of Deputies which has a minimum of 300 seats and a maximum of 400 (currently 350). The deputies are elected by universal suffrage for 4 years from departmental constituencies. There are allotted one minimum representation and the remaining is proportional to their population. To avoid splitting up which is harmful to the stability of the Chamber, the D’Hondt system is applied.
The executive wing of the government depends directly or indirectly on the parliament's support, often expressed by a vote of confidence. The legislative power belongs to the government and the two houses of parliament at the same time. The Prime Minister does not have the authority to dissolve the parliament directly, but he can recommend its dissolution to the king. The Spanish citizens enjoy considerable political rights.
The 17 Autonomous Communities also have a legislative power exercised by their unicameral Parliament within the limit of jurisdictions fixed by each of their statutes.
 

Indicator of freedom of the press

Définition :

Note: Press Freedom

World Rank:
29/180
 

Indicator of political freedom

Définition :

Note: Political Freedom

Ranking:
Free
Political freedom:
1/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Font: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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